Scientific section. Linguistics

Grammar structures with precedent phenomena in contemporary american youth discourse

Analyzing the results of a linguistic experiment, this article investigates the usage patterns of precedent phenomena in the discourse of American young adults. The findings indicate that there are two major
grammar models for the speakers to utilize precedent phenomena: comparative constructions and noun phrase complements. These patterns reveal some unique characteristics of the language units of interest.

On the problem of semiotic nature of abbreviations and phraseological units

The article highlights a semiotic approach to the study of specific language units: abbreviations and phraseological units. The relation between the signifier and the signified helps to perceive the process
of the formation of new linguistic signs which can be both motivated and arbitrary. In both cases the asymmetry of a linguistic sign causes the appearance of either a new signifier (in abbreviation), or a new signified (in phraseology).

Metaphorization of Social Lexis in the Russian Jargons of the End of the 20th – the Beginning of the 21st centuries

The article analyzes jargon metaphors formed on the basis of social lexis. The author singles out semantic fields and groups extensively used for developing transfers, the main principles of metaphorization and their specific characteristics in comparison with the literary language. The conclusions are drawn on the jargon users’ world picture, which is represented with the help of the social metaphor.

Transformation as a Means of Giving Adequate Translation

The article is devoted to the problems of literary translation, in particular to the ways of supplying adequate translation. On the examples from a short story by a famous XX century English writer D.H. Lawrence, the authors of the article show that in the cases where there are no analogues in the target language to the structures of the source language, lexical and grammar transformations prove to be effective. Transformations of this kind, which are used taking into consideration the text function and the context, make up for stylistic shifts inevitable in literary translation.

A Hint as an Element of a Speech Act and Speech Genre

The article deals with a hint as a speech communicative element of communication; special attention is drawn to the following modern linguistic concepts – speech genres, the speech act theory, indirect speech genres, indirect speech acts. The article gives examples of speech genre models under research which show typical relations between direct (literal) and indirect meaning of a hint as an indirect communication element. It describes the place of hints as a means of rendering indirect meaning within the system of the indirect speech act and genre theory.

The Functions of Greek Loan-words of the Orthodox Religious Discourse in Literature (on the Material of S.V. Kekova’s poetry)

The article is focused on Greek loan-words from the Orthodox discourse in literature. Statistic, stylistic, and semantic analysis of such Greek loan-words is carried out on the material of poems by S. Kekova. Performing a complex of different functions, the Greek loanwords are shown to create an individual world model –a Universe with the World Tree as its Axis.

Functional Semantic Field Aim in the Dialect and Colloquial Speech

Written on the material of Russian dialect and colloquial speech the article describes purely grammatical means of expressing the idea “aim”, such as introduced by the formal marker «–бы» subordinate clauses, the prepositional case and case forms. It shows common traits in the ways of rendering the same shades of the meaning «aim» expressed by different linguistic means. 

Pragmatic Orientation of Metaphorical Means of Expression in the Language of Economics (on the Material of the Television Sublanguage in the Federal Republic of Germany)

The article is devoted to the exploration of semantic and stylistic peculiarities of the German media language. The object of the research is specific features of the semantics and pragmatic influence of metaphorical means which are used in economic news broadcasts on FRG TV channel Deutsche Welle to present the global financial crisis. The analysis marks out the basic semantic spheres in which lexical units develop the same kind figurative meaning and gives several tendencies of forming terminology of economics using metaphorisation.

Associative Field of the Event Name

The article deals with the analysis of associative fields formed by stimuli with event meaning, it describes the procedure of marking out the structural slots, typical of stimuli which name events.