Scientific section. Linguistics

Ways of Presenting Knowledge (the Experience of the XIXth Century Scientists)

The author compares signature peculiarities of the scientific discourse texts of the prominent XIXth century scientists Ch. Darwin and H. Spenser from the perspective of pragmatics and ways of knowledge presentation. The main aspects of comparison are text organization, mental presentations and the style of narration.

Financial and Economic Metaphors in the English Slang

The article considers the models of forming metaphorical shifts in slang on the basis of the ‘Property and Exchange Relationships’ semantic field in the modern English language (its American variant). Target areas are revealed and analyzed from the statistical and cognitive perspectives.

Variability in Meaning of the Precedent Biblical text about Adam and Eve (on the Material of American English)

The article touches upon the topic of variability in the meaning of the precedent Biblical text about Adam and Eve in the discourse of the speakers of American English. Basic features of precedent phenomena are highlighted in comparison with idiomatic units and the conclusion is drawn on the absence of a fixed usual meaning of precedent phenomena.

Archaisms of the French Language in Canada

The article discusses archaisms in the French language of Canada. Being isolated from the French of France Canadian variant of French has undergone its development and has retained those lexical units and meanings which the French language of France has lost.

The Reflection of Emotions in Sound (Instrumental Methods in Phonoscopic Examination)

The article represents an experimental projective study of the emotional component of the sounding speech. This study was done with the help of instrumental methods. Authentic material with the specified parameters is being analyzed by using the program of the sounding speech marking «Praat» and phonosemantic analysis program «Zvukotsvet». The results can be used for the forensic phonoscopic examination of speech.

Complex Mental Image as an Illustrative Communicative Structure in a Multicultural Fictional Space

The article is devoted to the analysis of the complex mental image formation, to the identification of its structure, and the text key points creating this image. Complex mental image is considered as illustrative material that helps comprehend the ethnic meanings of one or another precedent phenomenon more thoroughly. Special attention is given to the author’s communication with the reader and to the complex mental image as a textual means through which this communication can be carried out.

Peculiarities of the Transformation of Sentences

The article is dedicated to the examination of the transformation peculiarities of sentences with adverbial complicators. The author proposes a typology of transformation models, analyzes the difficulties that the researcher may face while conducting the research.

Intentional Semantic Shift in the Sphere of Gradability Category (Adjectives and Adverbs)

The article considers instances of intentional semantic shift of nongradability – gradability in adjectives and adverbs, when adjectives and adverbs naming non-gradable characteristics are intentionally used with degree indices or intensifiers in order to create a new meaning.

National Culture as a Factor of Forming Linguistic and Conceptual Pictures of the World (on the Example of Scientific World Picture in Jurisprudence)

The article deals with one of the disputable issues of cognitive linguistics – the possibility of national culture manifestation in the scientific legal picture of the world. On the analysis of different terminological research works the author proves that national culture may be inherent in many scientific world pictures (technical, natural, and humanitarian).

Language Representation of Value Preferences of the Uralian People on the Data of the Local Press

The article presents an attempt of a linguoaxiological interpretation of the value preferences the Uralian people. The analysis focuses on the materials of the newspaper Gorodskiye vesti (City news) the target audience of which are the citizens of Revda in Sverdlovsk region. The authors reveal axiological constants of the sociocentric mentality and linguistic means of their representation.